Python爬取二手房源数据,可视化分析二手房市场行情数据

2021年10月1日 26点热度 0条评论 来源: 松鼠爱出饼干

本文重点

  1. 系统分析网页性质
  2. 结构化的数据解析
  3. csv数据保存

环境介绍

  • python 3.8
  • pycharm 专业版 >>> 激活码

#模块使用

  • requests >>> pip install requests
  • parsel >>> pip install parsel
  • csv

 

 

【付费VIP完整版】只要看了就能学会的教程,80集Python基础入门视频教学点击免费观看

 

对于本篇文章有疑问,或者想要数据集的同学也可以点这里加群:1039649593

爬虫代码实现步骤: 发送请求 >>> 获取数据 >>> 解析数据 >>> 保存数据

导入模块

import requests # 数据请求模块 第三方模块 pip install requests
import parsel # 数据解析模块
import re
import csv

 

发送请求, 对于房源列表页发送请求

url = 'https://bj.lianjia.com/ershoufang/pg1/'
# 需要携带上 请求头: 把python代码伪装成浏览器 对于服务器发送请求
# User-Agent 浏览器的基本信息
headers = {
    'User-Agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/94.0.4606.61 Safari/537.36'
}
response = requests.get(url=url, headers=headers)

 

获取数据

print(response.text)

 

解析数据

selector_1 = parsel.Selector(response.text)
# 把获取到response.text 数据内容转成 selector 对象
href = selector_1.css('div.leftContent li div.title a::attr(href)').getall()
for link in href:
    html_data = requests.get(url=link, headers=headers).text
    selector = parsel.Selector(html_data)
    # css选择器 语法
    # try:
    title = selector.css('.title h1::text').get() # 标题
    area = selector.css('.areaName .info a:nth-child(1)::text').get()  # 区域
    community_name = selector.css('.communityName .info::text').get()  # 小区
    room = selector.css('.room .mainInfo::text').get()  # 户型
    room_type = selector.css('.type .mainInfo::text').get()  # 朝向
    height = selector.css('.room .subInfo::text').get().split('/')[-1]  # 楼层
    # 中楼层/共5层 split('/') 进行字符串分割  ['中楼层', '共5层'] [-1]
    # ['中楼层', '共5层'][-1] 列表索引位置取值 取列表中最后一个元素  共5层
    # re.findall('共(\d+)层', 共5层) >>>  [5][0] >>> 5
    height = re.findall('共(\d+)层', height)[0]
    sub_info = selector.css('.type .subInfo::text').get().split('/')[-1]  # 装修
    Elevator = selector.css('.content li:nth-child(12)::text').get()  # 电梯
    # if Elevator == '暂无数据电梯' or Elevator == None:
    #     Elevator = '无电梯'
    house_area = selector.css('.content li:nth-child(3)::text').get().replace('', '')  # 面积
    price = selector.css('.price .total::text').get()  # 价格(万元)
    date = selector.css('.area .subInfo::text').get().replace('年建', '')  # 年份
    dit = {
        '标题': title,
        '市区': area,
        '小区': community_name,
        '户型': room,
        '朝向': room_type,
        '楼层': height,
        '装修情况': sub_info,
        '电梯': Elevator,
        '面积(㎡)': house_area,
        '价格(万元)': price,
        '年份': date,
    }
    csv_writer.writerow(dit)
    print(title, area, community_name, room, room_type, height, sub_info, Elevator, house_area, price, date,
          sep='|')

 

保存数据

f = open('二手房数据.csv', mode='a', encoding='utf-8', newline='')
csv_writer = csv.DictWriter(f, fieldnames=[
    '标题',
    '市区',
    '小区',
    '户型',
    '朝向',
    '楼层',
    '装修情况',
    '电梯',
    '面积(㎡)',
    '价格(万元)',
    '年份',
])
csv_writer.writeheader()

 

数据可视化

导入所需模块

import pandas as pd
from pyecharts.charts import Map
from pyecharts.charts import Bar
from pyecharts.charts import Line
from pyecharts.charts import Grid
from pyecharts.charts import Pie
from pyecharts.charts import Scatter
from pyecharts import options as opts

 

读取数据

df = pd.read_csv('链家.csv', encoding = 'utf-8')
df.head()

 

各城区二手房数量北京市地图

new = [x + '' for x in region]
m = (
        Map()
        .add('', [list(z) for z in zip(new, count)], '北京')
        .set_global_opts(
            title_opts=opts.TitleOpts(title='北京市二手房各区分布'),
            visualmap_opts=opts.VisualMapOpts(max_=3000),
        )
    )
m.render_notebook()

 

各城区二手房数量-平均价格柱状图

df_price.values.tolist()
price = [round(x,2) for x in df_price.values.tolist()]
bar = (
    Bar()
    .add_xaxis(region)
    .add_yaxis('数量', count,
              label_opts=opts.LabelOpts(is_show=True))
    .extend_axis(
        yaxis=opts.AxisOpts(
            name="价格(万元)",
            type_="value",
            min_=200,
            max_=900,
            interval=100,
            axislabel_opts=opts.LabelOpts(formatter="{value}"),
        )
    )
    .set_global_opts(
        title_opts=opts.TitleOpts(title='各城区二手房数量-平均价格柱状图'),
        tooltip_opts=opts.TooltipOpts(
            is_show=True, trigger="axis", axis_pointer_type="cross"
        ),
        xaxis_opts=opts.AxisOpts(
            type_="category",
            axispointer_opts=opts.AxisPointerOpts(is_show=True, type_="shadow"),
        ),
        yaxis_opts=opts.AxisOpts(name='数量',
            axistick_opts=opts.AxisTickOpts(is_show=True),
            splitline_opts=opts.SplitLineOpts(is_show=False),)
    )
)

line2 = (
    Line()
    .add_xaxis(xaxis_data=region)
    .add_yaxis(
        
        series_name="价格",
        yaxis_index=1,
        y_axis=price,
        label_opts=opts.LabelOpts(is_show=True),
        z=10
        )
)

bar.overlap(line2)
grid = Grid()
grid.add(bar, opts.GridOpts(pos_left="5%", pos_right="20%"), is_control_axis_index=True)
grid.render_notebook()

 

area0 = top_price['小区'].values.tolist()
count = top_price['价格(万元)'].values.tolist()

bar = (
    Bar()
    .add_xaxis(area0)
    .add_yaxis('数量', count,category_gap = '50%')
    .set_global_opts(
        yaxis_opts=opts.AxisOpts(name='价格(万元)'),
        xaxis_opts=opts.AxisOpts(name='数量'),
    )
)
bar.render_notebook()

 

散点图

s = (
    Scatter()
    .add_xaxis(df['面积(㎡)'].values.tolist())
    .add_yaxis('',df['价格(万元)'].values.tolist())
    .set_global_opts(xaxis_opts=opts.AxisOpts(type_='value'))
)
s.render_notebook()

 

房屋朝向占比

directions = df_direction.index.tolist()
count = df_direction.values.tolist()

c1 = (
    Pie(init_opts=opts.InitOpts(
            width='800px', height='600px',
            )
       )
        .add(
        '',
        [list(z) for z in zip(directions, count)],
        radius=['20%', '60%'],
        center=['40%', '50%'],
#         rosetype="radius",
        label_opts=opts.LabelOpts(is_show=True),
        )    
        .set_global_opts(title_opts=opts.TitleOpts(title='房屋朝向占比',pos_left='33%',pos_top="5%"),
                        legend_opts=opts.LegendOpts(type_="scroll", pos_left="80%",pos_top="25%",orient="vertical")
                        )
        .set_series_opts(label_opts=opts.LabelOpts(formatter='{b}:{c} ({d}%)'),position="outside")
    )
c1.render_notebook()

 

装修情况/有无电梯玫瑰图(组合图)

fitment = df_fitment.index.tolist()
count1 = df_fitment.values.tolist()

directions = df_direction.index.tolist()
count2 = df_direction.values.tolist()

bar = (
    Bar()
    .add_xaxis(fitment)
    .add_yaxis('', count1, category_gap = '50%')
    .reversal_axis()
    .set_series_opts(label_opts=opts.LabelOpts(position='right'))    
    .set_global_opts(
        xaxis_opts=opts.AxisOpts(name='数量'),
        title_opts=opts.TitleOpts(title='装修情况/有无电梯玫瑰图(组合图)',pos_left='33%',pos_top="5%"),
        legend_opts=opts.LegendOpts(type_="scroll", pos_left="90%",pos_top="58%",orient="vertical")
    )
)

c2 = (
    Pie(init_opts=opts.InitOpts(
            width='800px', height='600px',
            )
       )
        .add(
        '',
        [list(z) for z in zip(directions, count2)],
        radius=['10%', '30%'],
        center=['75%', '65%'],
        rosetype="radius",
        label_opts=opts.LabelOpts(is_show=True),
        )    
        .set_global_opts(title_opts=opts.TitleOpts(title='有/无电梯',pos_left='33%',pos_top="5%"),
                        legend_opts=opts.LegendOpts(type_="scroll", pos_left="90%",pos_top="15%",orient="vertical")
                        )
        .set_series_opts(label_opts=opts.LabelOpts(formatter='{b}:{c} \n ({d}%)'),position="outside")
    )

bar.overlap(c2)
bar.render_notebook()

 

二手房楼层分布柱状缩放图

floor = df_floor.index.tolist()
count = df_floor.values.tolist()
bar = (
    Bar()
    .add_xaxis(floor)
    .add_yaxis('数量', count)
    .set_global_opts(
        title_opts=opts.TitleOpts(title='二手房楼层分布柱状缩放图'),
        yaxis_opts=opts.AxisOpts(name='数量'),
        xaxis_opts=opts.AxisOpts(name='楼层'),
        datazoom_opts=opts.DataZoomOpts(type_='slider')
    )
)
bar.render_notebook()

 

房屋面积分布纵向柱状图

area = df_area.index.tolist()
count = df_area.values.tolist()

bar = (
    Bar()
    .add_xaxis(area)
    .add_yaxis('数量', count)
    .reversal_axis()
    .set_series_opts(label_opts=opts.LabelOpts(position="right"))
    .set_global_opts(
        title_opts=opts.TitleOpts(title='房屋面积分布纵向柱状图'),
        yaxis_opts=opts.AxisOpts(name='面积(㎡)'),
        xaxis_opts=opts.AxisOpts(name='数量'),
    )
)
bar.render_notebook()

 

对于本篇文章有疑问,或者想要数据集的同学也可以点这里

    原文作者:松鼠爱出饼干
    原文地址: https://www.cnblogs.com/qshhl/p/15352707.html
    本文转自网络文章,转载此文章仅为分享知识,如有侵权,请联系管理员进行删除。